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Xi, X., Li, R., Jiang, Y., Lin, Y., Wu, Y., Zhou, M., Xu, J., Wang, L., Chen, T., and Shaw, C. 2013. Medusins: a new class of antimicrobial peptides from the skin secretions of phyllomedusine frogs. Biochimie. 95:1288-1297.
Xi, Z.-F., Bie, W., Chen, W., Liu, D., van Ofwegen, L., Proksch, P., and Lin, W.-H. 2013. Sarcophyolides BE, new cembranoids from the soft coral Sarcophyton elegans. Mar. Drugs. 11:3186-3196.
Xiang, H.-M., Ma, R.-Y., Diao, H.-L., Li, X.-W., He, X.-J., and Guo, Y.-F. 2017. Peach-specific aldehyde nonanal attracts female oriental fruit moths, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J. Asia Pacific Entomol. 20:1419-1424.
Xiao, D.-J., Peng, X.-D., Deng, S.-Z., Ma, W.-J., and Wu, H.-M. 2005. Structure elucidation of (3E)-cholest-4-en-3,6-dione-3-oxime in marine sponge Cinachyrella australiensis from the South China sea. Youji Huaxue. 25:1606-1609.
Xiao, W., Matsuyama, S., Ando, T., Millar, J.G., and Honda, H. 2012. Unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons synergize responses to sex attractant pheromone in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis. J. Chem. Ecol. 38:1143-1150.
Xiao, Y., Zhang, J., and Li, S. 2009. A two-component female-produced pheromone of the spider Pholcus beijingensis. J. Chem. Ecol. 35:769-778.
Xiao, Y.H., Zhang, J.X., and Li, S.Q. 2010. Male-specific (Z)-9-tricosene stimulates female mating behaviour in the spider Pholcus beijingensis. Proc. Biol. Sci. 277:3009-3018.
Xio, Y.-J., Su, J.-H., Chen, B.-W., Tseng, Y.-J., Wu, Y.-C., and Sheu, J.-H. 2013. Oxygenated ylangene-derived sesquiterpenoids from the soft coral Lemnalia philippinensis. Mar. Drugs. 11:3735-3741.
Xio, Y.-J., Su, J.-H., Tseng, Y.-J., Chen, B.-W., Liu, W., and Sheu, J.-H. 2014. Oxygenated eremophilane- and neolemnane-derived sesquiterpenoids from the soft coral Lemnalia philippinensis. Mar. Drugs. 12:4495-4503.
Xiu, C.-L., Pan, H.-S., Liu, B., Luo, Z.-X., Williams, III, L., Yang, Y.-Z., and Lu, Y.-H. 2019. Perception of and behavioral responses to host plant volatiles for three Adelphocoris species. J. Chem. Ecol. 45:779-788.
Xu, B., Che, H., Kang, L., Zheng, S., Mu, S., and Wan, F. 2012. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of novel antimicrobial peptides from the skin of brown frog, Rana zhenhaiensis. Zool. Sci. 29:553.
Xu, F.-Q., Feng, Y.-Y., Guo, L., Guo, G.-L., and Yan, B.-L. 2013. On chemical constitutes from Sargassum pallidum. Anhui Nongye Kexue. 41:6658-6689.
Xu, H., Bohman, B., Wong, D.C.J., Rodrguez-Delgado, C., Scaffidi, A., Flematti, G.R., Phillips, R.D., Pichersky, E., and Peakall, R. 2017a. Complex sexual deception in an orchid is achieved by co-opting two independent biosynthetic pathways for pollinator attraction. Curr. Biol. 27:1867-1877.
Xu, H., Zhang, Y., Feng, X., Tie, K., Cao, Y., and Han, W. 2017b. Catesbeianin-1, a novel antimicrobial peptide isolated from the skin of Lithobates catesbeianus (American bullfrog). Biotechnol. Lett. 39:897-903.
Xu, H., Zhou, G., Dtterl, S., Schffler, I., von Arx, M., Rder, G., Degen, T., Chen, L., and Turlings, T.C.J. 2019. The combined use of an attractive and a repellent sex pheromonal component by a gregarious parasitoid. J. Chem. Ecol. 45:559-569.
Xu, J., Hasegawa, M., Harada, K.-I., Kobayashi, H., Nagai, H., and Namikoshi, M. 2006. Melophlins P, Q, R, and S: four new tetramic acid derivatives, from two Palauan marine sponges of the genus Melophlus. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 54:852-854.
Xu, J.-H., Chang, Y.-C., Li, G.-Q., Wen, Z.-H., Wu, Y.-C., and Sung, P.-J. 2018b. Briaviolides O and P, new briaranes from a cultured octocoral Briareum violaceum. Phytochem. Lett. 27:129-133.
Xu, J.-H., Lai, K.-H., Su, Y.-D., Chang, Y.-C., Peng, B.-R., Backlund, A., Wen, Z.-H., and Sung, P.-J. 2018a. Briaviolides KN, new briarane-type diterpenoids from cultured octocoral Briareum violaceum. Mar. Drugs. 16:75-87.
Xu, L., Patrick, B.O., Roberge, M., Allen, T., van Ofwegen, L., and Andersen, R.J. 2000. New diterpenoids from the octocoral Pachyclavularia violacea collected in Papua New Guinea. Tetrahedron. 56:9031-9037.
Xu, M., Andrews, K.T., Birrell, G.W., Tran, T.L., Camp, D., Davis, R.A., and Quinn, R.J. 2011. Psammaplysin H, a new antimalarial bromotyrosine alkaloid from a marine sponge of the genus Pseudoceratina. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21:846-848.
Xu, M., Davis, R.A., Feng, Y., Sykes, M.L., Shelper, T., Avery, V.M., Camp, D., and Quinn, R.J. 2012. Ianthelliformisamines A-C, antibacterial bromotyrosine-derived metabolites from the marine sponge Suberea ianthelliformis. J. Nat. Prod. 75:1001-1005.
Xu, M.-W., and Hao, Y.-T. 2016. A new sesquiterpene from the South China sea gorgonian coral Subergorgia suberosa. Nat. Prod. Res. 30:2402-2406.
Xu, N., Fan, X., Yan, X., Li, X., Niu, R., and Tseng, C.K. 2003. Antibacterial bromophenols from the marine red alga Rhodomela confervoides. Phytochem. 62:1221-1224.
Xu, N.J., Sun, X., and Yan, X.J. 2007. A new cyclostellettamine from sponge Amphimedon compressa. Chin. Chem. Lett. 18:947-950.
Xu, S., Cen, Y., Cai, L., Li, Y., and Xu, S. 2001. Studies on the chemical components from Sargassum fusiform. Zhong Yao Cai. 24:491-492.
Xu, S., Errabeli, R., Feener, D.H., Noble, K., and Attygalle, A.B. 2018. Alkyl-dimethylpyrazines in mandibular gland secretions of four Odontomachus ant species (Formicidae: Ponerinae). J. Chem. Ecol. 44:444-451.
Xu, S., Errabeli, R., Will, K., Arias, E., and Attygalle, A.B. 2019. 3-Methyl-1-(methylthio)-2-butene: a component in the foul-smelling defensive secretion of two Ceroglossus species (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Chemoecology. 29:171-178.
Xu, S., Liao, X., Du, B., Zhou, X., Huang, Q., and Wu, C. 2008. A series of new 5,6-epoxysterols from a Chinese sponge Ircinia aruensis. Steroids. 73:568-573.
Xu, S.-H., Ding, L.-S., Wang, M.-K., Peng, S.-L., and Liao, X. 2002. Studies on the chemical constituents of the algae Sargassum polycystum. Chin. J. Org. Chem. 22:138-140
Xu, T., Hansen, L., Cha, D.H., Hao, D., Zhang, L., and Teale, S.A. 2020. Identification of a female-produced pheromone in a destructive invasive species: Asian longhorn beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis. J. Pest Sci. 93:1321-1332.
Xu, T., Yasui, H., Teale, S.A., Fujiwara-Tsuji, N., Wickham, J.D., Fukaya, M., Hansen, L., Kiriyama, S., Hao, D., Nakano, A., Zhang, L., Watanabe, T., Tokoro, M., and Millar, J.G. 2017. Identification of a male-produced sex-aggregation pheromone for a highly invasive cerambycid beetle, Aromia bungii. Sci. Rep. 7:7330-7337.
Xu, W.-G., Wang, J., Xing, G.-S., Xu, J.-J., Qiao, W., Zhao, C., and Tang, S.-A. 2016. Jaspiferin G, a new isomalabaricane-type triterpenoid from the sponge Jaspis stellifera. Z. Naturforsch. C. 71:111-114.
Xu, W.-G., Xu, J.-J., Wang, J., Xing, G.-S., Qiao, W., Duan, H.-Q., Zhao, C., and Tang, S.-A. 2017. Axinellin A and B: two new pyrrolactam alkaloids from Axinella sp. Chem. Nat. Comp. 53:325-327.
Xu, X., Li, J., Han, Y., Yang, H., Liang, J., Lu, Q., and Lai, R. 2006. Two antimicrobial peptides from skin secretions of Rana grahami. Toxicon. 47:459-464.
Xu, X., Song, F., Fan, X., Fang, N., and Shi, J. 2009. A novel bromophenol from marine red alga Symphyocladia latiuscula. Chem. Nat. Comp. 45:811-813.
Xu, X., Yang, H., Khalil, Z.G., Yin, L., Xiao, X., Neupane, P., Bernhardt, P.V., Salim, A.A., Song, F., and Capon, R.J. 2017. Chemical diversity from a Chinese marine red alga, Symphyocladia latiuscula. Mar. Drugs. 15:374-383.
Xu, X., Yang, H., Khalil, Z.G., Yin, L., Xiao, X., Salim, A.A., Song, F., and Capon, R.J. 2019. Bromocatechol conjugates from a Chinese marine red alga, Symphyocladia latiuscula. Phytochem. 158:20-25.
Xu, X., Yin, L., Wang, Y., and Wang, S. 2013. A new bromobenzyl methyl sulphoxide from marine red alga Symphyocladia latiuscula. Nat. Prod. Res. 27:723-726.
Xu, X.-H., Kong, C.-H., Lin. C.-J., Wang, X., Zhu, Y.-D., and Yang, H.-S. 2003. A novel diterpenoid from the soft coral Sarcophyton crassocaule. Chin. J. Chem. 21:1506-1509.
Xu, X.H., Lin, C.J., Lu, J.H., and Yao, G.M. 2002. A new sesquiterpene from the alga Caloglossa leprieurii. Chin. Chem. Lett. 13:953-954.
Xu, X.-H., Yao, G.-M., Lu, J.-H., Li, Y.-M., and Lin, C.-J. 2001. A novel cerebroside from the marine sponge Phacellia fusca Schmidt. Chem. J.Chin. Uni. 22:116-119.
Xu, X.-H., Zeng, L.-M., and Su, J.-Y. 1997. Tricyclic sesquiterpene from Laurencia majuscula. Chem. Res. Chin. Univer. 13:176.
Xu, X.-L., Fan, X., Song, F.-H., Zhao, J.-L., Han, J.-L., Yang, Y.-C., and Shi, J.-G. 2004b. Bromophenols from the brown alga Leathesia nana. J. Asian Nat. Prod. Res. 6:217-221.
Xu, X.-L., Song, F.-H., Wang, S., Li, S., Xiao, F., Zhao, J., Yang, Y., Shang, S., Yang, L., and Shi, J. 2004a. Dibenzyl bromophenols with diverse dimerization patterns from the brown alga Leathesia nana. J. Nat. Prod. 67:1661-1666.
Xu, Y., Lang, J., Jiao, W., Wang, R., Peng, Y., Song, S., Zhang, B., and Lin, H. 2012. Formamido-diterpenes from the South China sea sponge Acanthella cavernosa. Mar. Drugs. 10:1445-1458.
Xue, D.-Q., Liu, H.-L., Chen, S.-H., Mollo, E., Gavagnin, M., Li, J., Li, X.-W., and Guo, Y.-W. 2017. 5-Alkylpyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde derivatives from the Chinese sponge Mycale lissochela and their PTP1B inhibitory activities. Chin. Chem. Lett. 28:1190-1193.

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Citation: El-Sayed AM 2024. The Pherobase: Database of Pheromones and Semiochemicals. <>.
Ⓒ 2003-2024 The Pherobase - Extensive Database of Pheromones and Semiochemicals. Ashraf M. El-Sayed.
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