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Semiochemical - isobutyric acid [2-Methylpropanoic acid]



Bedoukain RussellIPM

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2-Methylpropanoic acid
2-Methylpropanoic acid
Formula:C4H8O2
CAS#:79-31-2
MW:88.11

[MS]  [ NMR ]  [ Kovats ]  [ Synthesis ]  [Occurrence in flower




Dots surface:

Species utilize 2-Methylpropanoic acid in its chemical communication system


Coleoptera, Trachypachidae 
Trachypachus gibbsii      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
 
Artiodactyla, Cervidae, Capreolinae 
Rangifer tarandus tarandus      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Reindeer 
 
Artiodactyla, Cervidae, Odocoileinae 
Odocoileus virginianus      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    White-tailed deer 
 
Carnivora, Herpestidae, Herpestinae 
Herpestes auropunctatus      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Small Indian mongoose 
 
Coleoptera, Silvanidae, Silvaninae 
Oryzaephilus surinamensis      K
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Sawtoothed grain beetle 
 
Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Omaliinae 
Lathrimaeum atrocephalum      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
Lathrimaeum unicolor      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
 
Heteroptera, Alydidae, Alydinae 
Megalotomus quinquespinosus      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
 
Ixodida, Amblyommidae, Amblyomminae 
Amblyomma hebraeum      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Bont tick 
 
Primates, Cercopithecidae, Cricetinae 
Macaca mulatta      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Rhesus macaque 
 
Rodentia, Cricetidae, Cricetinae 
Mesocricetus auratus      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Golden hamster 
 
Carnivora, Canidae, Caninae, Canini 
Canis familiaris      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Domestic dog 
Canis latrans      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Coyote 
Canis lupus      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Gray wolf 
Canis mesomelas      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Black-backed jackal 
Lycaon pictus      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    African wild dog 
 
Carnivora, Canidae, Caninae, Vulpini 
Vulpes vulpes      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Red fox 
 
Carnivora, Felidae, Felinae, Acinonychini 
Acinonyx jubatus      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Cheetah 
 
Carnivora, Felidae, Pantherinae, Pantherini 
Panthera leo      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    African lion 
Panthera pardus      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Leopard 
 
Coleoptera, Carabidae, Broscinae, Broscini 
Broscus cephalotes      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Dull black ground beetle 
Craspedonotus tibialis      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
Promecoderus mastersi      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
 
Coleoptera, Carabidae, Carabinae, Bembidiini 
Bembidion andreae      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
Bembidion lampros      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
 
Coleoptera, Carabidae, Carabinae, Carabini 
Calosoma sycophanta      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Greater caterpillar hunter 
Carabus caelatus      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
Carabus ullrichi      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
Carabus violaceus      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Violet ground beetle 
 
Coleoptera, Carabidae, Carabinae, Ceroglossini 
Ceroglossus buqueti      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
Ceroglossus chilensis      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
Ceroglossus magellanicus      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
 
Coleoptera, Carabidae, Carabinae, Notiophilini 
Notiophilus biguttatus      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Common springtail-stalker 
 
Coleoptera, Carabidae, Elaphrinae, Elaphrini 
Elaphrus ripareus      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Green-socks peacock 
 
Coleoptera, Carabidae, Licininae, Oodini 
Oodes amaroides      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
Oodes americanus      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
 
Coleoptera, Carabidae, Loricerinae, Lorocerini 
Lorocera pilicornis      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
 
Coleoptera, Carabidae, Omophroninae, Omophronini 
Omophron limbatum      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Spangled button beetle 
 
Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichinae, Pterostichini 
Abax parallelepipedus      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
Pterostichus externepunctatus roccai      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
 
Coleoptera, Carabidae, Scaritinae, Scaritini 
Pasimachus subsulcatus      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
Scarites subterraneus      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Big-headed ground beetle 
 
Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae, Trechini 
Pheggomisetes ninae      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
Tachys sericans      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
Trechoblemus postilenatus      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
 
Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Chrysomelinae, Chrysomelini 
Chrysomela lapponica      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
 
Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae, Myrmedoniini 
Zyras laticollis      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
 
Dictyoptera, Blattidae, Polyzosteriinae, Eurycotini 
Eurycotis floridana      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
 
Diptera, Culicidae, Culicinae, Aedini 
Aedes aegypti      A
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Yellow fever mosquito 
 
Diptera, Tachinidae, Exoristinae, Exoristini 
Exorista bombycis      K
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Uzifly 
 
Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae, Rhodniini 
Rhodnius prolixus      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
 
Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae, Triatomini 
Triatoma infestans      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Vinchuca 
Triatoma infestans      K
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Vinchuca 
Triatoma infestans      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Vinchuca 
Triatoma lecticularia      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
Triatoma phyllosoma      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
 
Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae, Cotesini 
Cotesia glomerata      A
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
 
Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae, Myrmicariini 
Myrmicaria natalensis      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
 
Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Hadeninae, Hadenini 
Mamestra brassicae      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Cabbage moth 
Mythimna conigera      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Brown-line bright-eye moth 
Mythimna impura      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Smokey wainscot moth 
Mythimna pallens      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Common wainscot moth 
 
Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Nymphalinae, Nymphalini 
Kaniska canace      A
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
Vanessa indica      A
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Indian red admiral 
 
Lepidoptera, Papilionidae, Baroniinae, Baroniini 
Baronia brevicornis      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Short-horned baronia 
 
Lepidoptera, Papilionidae, Papilioninae, Graphiini 
Eurytides marcellus      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Zebra swallowtail 
Graphium doson albidum      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
Graphium sarpedon nipponum      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Common bluebottle butterfly 
 
Lepidoptera, Papilionidae, Papilioninae, Papilionini 
Chilasa agestor      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Tawny mime 
Chilasa epycides      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Lesser mime 
Papilio bianor      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Chinese peacock 
Papilio cresphontes      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Giant swallowtail 
Papilio demodocus      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Orange dog 
Papilio demoleus      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Chequered swallowtail 
Papilio glaucus      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Eastern tiger swallowtail 
Papilio helenus      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Red helen 
Papilio maackii      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Alpine black swallowtail 
Papilio machaon      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Swallowtail 
Papilio machaon      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Swallowtail 
Papilio macilentus      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Long tail spangle 
Papilio memnon      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Great mormon 
Papilio memnon heronus      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active     
Papilio palamedes      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Palamedes swallowtail 
Papilio paris      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Paris peacock 
Papilio polytes      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Common mormon 
Papilio polyxenes      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Black swallowtail 
Papilio protenor demetrius      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Spangle 
Papilio troilus      Al
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Spicebush swallowtail 
Papilio xuthus      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Asian swallowtail 
 
Lepidoptera, Papilionidae, Parnassiinae, Parnassiini 
Parnassius glacialis      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Japanese clouded apollo 
 
Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Gryllinae, Gryllini 
Acheta domesticus      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    House cricket 
 
Primates, Cercopithecidae, Cercopithecinae, Papionini 
Mandrillus sphinx      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Mandrill 
 
Rodentia, Cricetidae, Cricetinae, Cricetini 
Phodopus sungorus sungorus      P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
(*) indicates that compound is active    Djungarian hamster 
 

 
Citation: El-Sayed AM 2024. The Pherobase: Database of Pheromones and Semiochemicals. <http://www.pherobase.com>.
Ⓒ 2003-2024 The Pherobase - Extensive Database of Pheromones and Semiochemicals. Ashraf M. El-Sayed.
Page created on 13-February-2024