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« Previous SpeciesSphaerophorus fragilis    Next SpeciesSphaerophorus melanocarpus »

Semiochemicals of Sphaerophorus globosus, the Globe ball lichen

Phylum:  Ascomycota
Subphylum:  Pezizomycotina
Class:  Lecanoromycetes
Order:  Lecanorales
Family:  Sphaerophoraceae
Subfamily:  
Genus:  Sphaerophorus
Tribe:  
Author:  Hudson
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Image: Google
Host: Google
Biology: Google
Distribution: Google



Bedoukain RussellIPM

Semiochemical(s):

  Czeczuga B  1999a  J. Hattori Bot. Lab.  86: 235   
    beta-carotene    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active   P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
Bennet Island, Siberia, Russia 
    beta-cryptoxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    lutein 5,6-epoxide    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    violaxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    canthaxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    astaxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    vitamin A    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
 
  Czeczuga B  1997b  Feddes Repert.  108: 401   
    alpha-carotene    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active   P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
Skagit Co, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmine National Forest, USA 
    beta-carotene    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    beta-cryptoxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    lutein A    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    lutein 5,6-epoxide    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    antheraxanthin A    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    canthaxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    astaxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    neoxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    violaxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
 
  Czeczuga B  1993d  Feddes Repert.  104: 551   
    lutein 5,6-epoxide    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active   P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula, Northwest Territory, Canada 
    canthaxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    violaxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    beta-carotene    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    alpha-carotene    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    3R3'R-zeaxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    lutein A    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    antheraxanthin A    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    vitamin A    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
 
  Czeczuga B  1993b  Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res.  25: 413   
    alpha-carotene    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active   P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
Godhavn, Arktisk Station, West Greenland 
    beta-carotene    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    beta-cryptoxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    lutein A    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    3R3'R-zeaxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    lutein 5,6-epoxide    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    antheraxanthin A    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    violaxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
 
  Czeczuga B  1990b  Phyton  30: 235   
    beta-carotene    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active   P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
Hohenlohefjellet, Srkappland, Spitsbergen 
    beta-cryptoxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    3R3'R-zeaxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    b-carotene 5,6-epoxide    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    lutein 5,6-epoxide    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    canthaxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    astaxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
 
  Czeczuga B  1989c  Ser. Cient.  39: 91   
    lutein A    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active   P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
Mount Wawel, Antarctic 
    lutein 5,6-epoxide    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    alpha-doradexanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    astaxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    violaxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    cryptoflavin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
 
  Czeczuga B  1987  Ser. Cient.  36: 151   
    beta-carotene    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active   P
Category of the chemical signal
A -   Attractant
Al -   Allomone
K -   Kairomone
P -   Pheromone
Sy -   Synomone
 
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
King George Island, Antarctic 
    3R3'R-zeaxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    lutein 5,6-epoxide    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    3S3'R-adonixanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    astaxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
    luteoxanthin    Relative ratio of the component   (*) indicates that compound is active    
Source of the chemical signal
F -   Female
H -   Host (could be of plant or animal origin)
L -   Lure
M -   Male
M&F -   Male and Female
S -   Solider
Q -   Queen
W -   Worker
 
Amount
pg -   Picogram
ng -   Nanogram
g -   Microgram
mg -   Milligram
g -   Gram
 
 
 

Reference(s):

Czeczuga, B., Zhurbenko, M., Czeczuga-Semeniuk, E., and Walker, M.D. 1999. Carotenoids in lichens from Bennet island lying in the East-Siberian sea. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 86:235-241.
 
Czeczuga, B., Ryan, B.D., Spiut, R.W., Flock, J.-A.W., Weber, W.A., Beasley, C.W., Showman, R.E., Worthington, R.D., and Boucher, V.L. 1997b. Carotenoids in lichens from the United States of America and Mexico. Feddes Repert. 108:401-417.
 
Czeczuga, B., and John, E.A. 1993d. Carotenoids in lichens from Northern Canada. Feddes Repert. 104:551-556.
 
Czeczuga, B., and Jacobsen, P. 1993b. Carotenoids in West Greenland lichens. Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res. 25:413-415.
 
Czeczuga, B., and Olech, M. 1990b. Investigations on carotenoids in lichens. XXV. Studies of carotenoids in lichens from Spitsbergen. Phyton. 30:235-245.
 
Czeczuga, B., and Olech, M. 1989c. Investigations on carotenoids in lichens. XXIV. Further studies of carotenoids in lichens of the Antarctica. Ser. Cient. 39:91-96.
 
Czeczuga, B. and Xavier-Filho, L. 1987. Investigations on carotenoids in lichens. X. Luteoxanthin and apo-12'-violaxanthal in lichens from the Antarctica. Ser. Cient. 36:151-155.
 
 
Citation: El-Sayed AM 2024. The Pherobase: Database of Pheromones and Semiochemicals. <http://www.pherobase.com>.
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